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Thursday, November 19 | 7:30-8:45 am

Grab coffee and breakfast and join a discussion group. These are moderated discussions with brainstorming and interactive problem solving, allowing conference participants from diverse backgrounds to exchange ideas and experiences and develop future collaborations around a focused topic.

Table 1: Li-Ion Battery Manufacturing in the United States

Ralph Brodd, Ph.D., President, Broddarp of Nevada, Inc.

  • Overcoming Hurdles to Success
    • Strong competition from overseas
    • Limited availability of trained personnel in new production technology
    • Finding a sustainable and stable market
    • Cost competitive
    • Long life
    • Safety
  • Current Situation
  • Strategies on How the U.S. Can Be Competitive

Table 2: Battery Safety - Developing a Methodology for Avoiding Risks from Product Failure and Subsequent Subrogation/Wrongful Death Legal Actions

Michael Eskra

Michael D. Eskra, President, Eskra Technical Products, Inc.

  • Previous speakers have discussed various causes of battery and cell failure. Some of these are well known while others are evolving due to increase in power and energy. Are there specific telltale signs of cells and batteries being causal to an incident or telltale signs when they are not?
  • Paralleling of cells to build capacity is a common practice. Cylindrical cells due to the PTC have a more defined limit, while many manufacturers are using multiple cells to hundreds of pouch cells in parallel in large prismatic form factors. Are there safe operational limitations?
  • What are the best diagnostic tools for the determination of whether a battery system was casual or a victim of an incident?

Table 3: Critical Battery Design Parameters; High-Power Lithium Cells


Eddie Forouzan, Ph.D., President, Testing, ARTIN Engineering and Consulting Group, Inc.

  • The operational requirements of newly available lithium cells are different than what we have become used to since the early 1990s. How should these changes be dealt with?
  • High-voltage, high-power lithium cathodes and their counter-electrodes and electrolytes are dominating the marketplace. Can they be a drop in replacement to older lithium technologies?
  • How can devices be designed to minimize improper system behavior, which may lead to premature and sometimes catastrophic device failures?
  • Can safety and performance criteria be predicted? What are the accuracies of these predictions?

Table 4: Cell Safety: A Continuously Increasing Technical Challenge

Derek Johnson

Derek C. Johnson, Ph.D., Executive Director, R&D, A123 Systems, LLC

  • Cell energy densities for both PHEV and EV applications are rising on an annual basis
  • Combining high energy with power densities that are currently in the range of 2000-3500 W/kg makes it increasingly difficult to pass EUCAR and QC/T safety requirements
  • Safety tests include nail penetration, hot box, external short circuit, overcharge, and over-discharge
  • Current and emerging technologies centered on imparting the needed level of cell safety without negatively impacting cell performance

Table 5: Overcoming Challenges to Commercializing Energy Storage

Bor Yann Liaw, Ph.D., Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, SOEST, University of Hawaii at Manoa

  • Innovative ideas – from materials to system integrations
  • Recent endeavors taken to unlock some of the challenges in electrochemical energy conversion and storage
  • Mechanistic understanding of battery degradation for diagnosis and prognosis

Table 6: Safety of Stationary Energy Storage Systems, Status and Future

Xuan Liu

Xuan (Shawn) Liu, Research Scientist, Department of Fire Protection Engineering, University of Maryland

  • Safety testing for stationary energy storage systems / large-format of battery pack
  • Safety standards for stationary energy storage systems
  • First responders’ training for stationary energy storage systems incidents
  • Pressing legal issues associated with the safety of stationary energy storage systems
  • Future of it: What problems? What opportunities?

Table 7: Fire Detection, Suppression and Emergency Response for ESS

Scott Bryant, PE, Managing Partner, Fire & Risk Alliance, LLC

While much of the focus on ESS safety revolves around the testing and transportation of batteries prior to system installation, there will inevitably be an increasing number of failures associated with complete ESS assemblies (even as individual cell failure rates are driven lower). As a result, focus needs to be placed on what protective systems need to be in place assuming that a fire will occur and what precautions and tactics for first responders are appropriate to mitigate the risk to occupants, first responders, and the structure and contents.

  • Existing standards for detection of ESS fires in commercial and residential applications
  • Existing standards for suppression of ESS fires in commercial and residential applications
  • Guidance for emergency responders for combating ESS fires
    • Appropriate suppression agents
    • Safe stand-off distances
    • Impact of nozzle type on leakage current
  • Developments in detection and suppression technologies specific to ESS

Table 8: Bridging the Gap between Materials Limitations and Manufacturing Requirements

Elena Shembel

Elena Shembel, Ph.D., Chairman & CEO, Enerize Corporation

  • Lots of effort and lots of success have been obtained in the areas of the material science for the development and invention of new electrodes and electrolytes materials for Li batteries
  • For the solid electrolytes, examples of the gaps include: problem of distribution of the solid electrolyte inside of porous structure of electrodes; decreasing the interface resistance between the solid electrolyte and electrode; increasing the rate of the vacuum deposition solid electrolyte of the surface of electrode
  • For the silicon-based composition for negative electrodes examples of the gaps include: technologies which can provide the strong mechanical strength during cycling without using expensive additives to the silicon-graphite composition; the technologies and equipment, which insure high level of cohesion between particles of the compositions; and adhesion of the composition to substrate of the current collector
  • Various technologies and equipment, which allow overcome the barrier between the achievements of the material science for various types of electrodes and electrolyte, and requirements of the manufacture and application of lithium power sources will be discussed and compared. Particular attention will be paid to various non-destructive testing methods equipment for novel electrodes and electrolytes materials during use of them for batteries productions

Table 9: Beyond Li-Ion Chemistries: Are We There Yet?

Donald Siegel

Donald J. Siegel, Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan

  • Unconventional battery chemistries that do not rely on the intercalation of lithium ions have the potential to achieve high-energy densities and may exhibit lower cost. Examples include Li-Sulfur, Metal-Air and cells whose anodes are based on monolithic lithium or multivalent metals
  • Nevertheless, several challenges confront these technologies, and arguably none are presently ready for commercialization
  • What are the major limitations present in these chemistries?
  • What approaches are most promising for overcoming these obstacles?
  • Which chemistries are closer to being application-ready?

Table 10: Li-Ion Battery Safety: Prediction, Prevention, Levels and Legalities

Zhengming (John) Zhang

John Zhang, Ph.D, CTO, Celgard

  • How do you define battery safety? What levels of battery safety must be considered to comprehensively advance research in this area?
  • What are the most reliable and useful measures of battery safety? How do abuse tests relate to improving battery safety?
  • What are the best methods for predicting battery safety behavior and preventing battery safety hazards?
  • What are the most pressing legal issues associated with battery safety and batteries in CE and EDV?
  • What has been the most recent progress in Li-ion safety measurements, safety prediction and safety prevention, critical for Li-ion applications in EDV and ESS systems?

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