Tuesday, April 29, 2014 (Times are U.S. Pacific Daylight Time)
8:00 Session Log In
8:50 Conference Director's Welcome
8:55 Chairperson's Opening RemarksHolger Schneider, PhD, BASF Corporation
9:00 One-Dimensional Tin Nanostructures for Lithium-Ion Batteries
M. Grant Norton, PhD, Professor, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University
Tin is an attractive anode for next generation lithium-ion batteries. The large volume change during cycling can be accommodated when the material is in the form of a 1-D nanostructure. Tin nanostructures are grown by electrodeposition and using electron microscopy we have determined the growth mechanism. This information has been used to control their formation on a range of substrates. In this presentation, we will also describe the results of in-situ lithiation/delithiation studies using a specially designed TEM holder and results obtained by combining the tin nanostructures with a flexible polymer electrolyte as a step toward a fully flexible battery.
9:30 New High Capacity Embedded Silicon-Graphene Composite Lithium ion Battery Anode Material
Junbing Yang, PhD, CTO, California Lithium Battery, Inc.
If significant improvements in electric vehicle (EV) lithium ion battery (LIB) specific energy (Wh/kg) or energy density (Wh/L) is to be achieved in a timely and cost effective manner, there must be a shift from graphite-based anodes to new, high specific capacity anode materials such as the new uniformly embedded and uniquely stable silicon-graphene composite anode material developed and produced by California Lithium Battery Inc.
10:00 Expanding Thermal Plasma CVD: Low Cost Silicon-Based Coatings Roel C.M. Bosch, PhD, Manager Innovations, Roth and Rau B.V., The Netherlands*
For over a decade Roth & Rau has been manufacturing Expanding Thermal Plasma (ETP) coating systems for ultrafast deposition of silicon-based materials. For battery applications, ETP technology can be exploited for low cost deposition of new materials for next generation batteries, such as silicon, carbon/silicon, and silicon-based nanoparticles (Si, SiO, SiC). Deposition rate levels are in the range of 1-2um/min for smooth silicon coatings and up to 10um/min for amorphous carbon, graphite-like carbon and porous silicon. In case of high operating pressures the plasma will generate nanoparticles with a controllable average size tunable between 5 and 150nm (distribution of +/-15%=1σ), and these can be deposited directly onto metal foils or can be collected for the synthesis of nano-sized silicon powder. The equipment is available in R&D and pilot scale, and can be configured for a S2S, R2R or batch production.* In collaboration with: P. Kudlacek, W. Boonen, B. v. Gerwen, and D.M. Borsa
10:30 Session Break
11:00 Modular Electrolyte Additives: Decoupling Uniform Deposition and Stability
Steven Kaye, PhD, CSO, Wildcat Discovery Technologies, Inc.
The stability and cycle life of lithium-ion batteries are limited by unfavorable reaction between the electrodes and electrolyte. To reduce this problem, electrolyte additives are used to passivate the cathode and/or anode with a protective coating. To function effectively, such additives must both deposit uniformly on the electrode surface and form an electrochemically inert coating. These dual constraints severely limit the set of viable additives. Wildcat Discovery Technologies has developed a new, modular additive concept in which additives are bound to a molecular core that enables uniform deposition on the electrode surface. Attachment of conventional additives to the core molecules provides improved SEI stability, increasing coulombic efficiency, cycle life, and thermal stability. Furthermore, by decoupling the requirements for uniform coating and chemical stability, new classes of additives can be used. In this talk, I will discuss the development of these modular additives as well as their performance with both commercial and future cell chemistries.
11:30 High Temperature Li-Ion Batteries Through Thermally Stable Separators
Brian Morin, COO, Dreamweaver International, Inc.
With recent fires in batteries for the Boeing Dreamliner and Tesla S, thermal stability in lithium ion batteries is of primary concern. In this talk, we present batteries made using a separator that is stable up to 300 C, and also stable through significant fire events, and show the additional safety that can be achieved in batteries using these separators.
12:00 Development and Characterization of a Multilayer Ceramic Battery (MLCB®)
Mark Wesselmann, President, Polymer Innovations, Inc.
The preliminary technology has been developed and prototypes made of a rechargeable, true solid state, non-flammable, lithium ion, Multilayer Ceramic Battery (MLCB®). This unique battery utilizes a Li ion conducting ceramic solid electrolyte and cell structure produced using tape casting processes, and shows promise to be transformational in terms of cell structure, high temperature use, zero volt capability, charging voltage conditions and safety.
12:30 Novel Electrolyte Additives for Li-S Batteries
Surya Moganty, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, NOHMs Technologies
Despite the excellent specific capacity (1672 mAh/g) and energy density (2567 Wh/kg), sulfur has practical impediments that prevent the material from achieving commercial status. The primary setback with sulfur is its insulating property. The second detrimental problem is the dissolution of intermediate charge/discharge lithium polysulfide (Li2Sx) products in the electrolyte that leads to decreased utilization of sulfur, triggering parasitic side reactions with Li metal anode, poor cycle life. Hence, the design of electrolytes with lower solubilizing power for Li2Sx is perhaps the most straightforward and valid approach to suppress Li2Sx deduced redox shuttle. A liquid electrolyte designed for this purpose should act as a poor solvent for all of the Li2Sx species of the sulfur cathode, while enabling good Li-ion conduction by the originally doped Li salts. Given that the active species exhibit a wide range of hydrophilicâˆ’hydrophobic character: sulfur (hydrophobic, soluble in nonpolar solvents), lithium sulfide (soluble in highly polar solvents) and polysulfide species (intermediate solubility depending on the chain length). In this study, we investigated functional additives (ionic liquids, amines) as electrolyte additives to improve the Li-S battery performance. Donor Number (DN), a measure of Lewis basicity, of electrolyte solvents and additives will be used to tune the polysulfide solubility. Finally, electrochemical and spectroscopic studies will be presented to reveal the effect of additives on Li-S battery performance.
1:00 Session Break
BATTERY SYSTEMS & APPLICATIONS
2:25 Chairperson's RemarksM. Grant Norton, PhD, Professor, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University
2:30 Modular Battery/Inverter Subassemblies Support Grid Connected Product Applications
Brent Harris, PEng, Chief Technology Officer, Eguana Technologies
A key factor in delivering optimal performance for advanced batteries in grid connected applications is tight physical and controls integration between the battery inverter sub-systems. The effort involved in achieving this integration and the cost of supporting a range of solutions for different applications makes a modular product strategy attractive, especially at this early stage of the market when product requirements are difficult to define and continuously evolving. Defining a standardized module that meets the needs of a wide range of applications has its own challenges, but flexible software based controls and close partnership between battery and inverter suppliers will deliver manufacturable high performance solutions that enable fast response to changing market requirements.
3:00 Prototype Pre-Heat System for Electric Vehicles
David Baglee, PhD, Dept of Computing, Engineering and Technology, University of Sunderland, United Kingdom
The performance of electric vehicles depends strongly on the performance of its battery pack, which can be influenced by extreme cold temperatures such as those found in Northern Europe. A battery pack performance is reduced as temperatures often reach - 30. Batteries may suffer from slow start, reduced range and slow rate of charge. A solution is to pre-heat the internal core, a module or pack cell. In order to pre-heat and regulate thermal instabilities it is necessary to simulate winter conditions. Sunderland University are developing a thermal management system to characterize the effect of low temperature on battery performance and pre-heat the batteries to ensure capacity, power, charge and safety are not compromised.
3:30 Lithium-Ion Batteries in Low Speed Electric Vehicles: A Case Study
Sam Lev, CEO, Lithium Boost Technologies Inc.
We will present case studies to illustrate the business advantages of using lithium-ion batteries in low speed electric vehicles/neighborhood vehicles. The speaker will demonstrate actual customers experience using advanced lithium-ion technology to archive superior performance at competitive cost. The presentation will include a technical description as well as describe the value proposition of this emerging technologies and how it can revolutionize the industry.
4:00 Session Break
4:30 The Economic Case for Choosing an Electric Vehicle
Mike Sanislo, PE, President, High Energy Consulting, Inc.
Everyone wants to be green. Except when it costs money. What is the economic case for purchasing an electric vehicle? It depends on the benefit set relative to the best competing alternatives. The speaker will show the economic value for current electric vehicle offerings relative to what else can be purchased in the market. Early adopters are not necessarily driven by economics---the large markets are dependent, in part, on a compelling value proposition---one that says that an electric vehicle costs less than competing alternatives. The speaker will show the math as it exists with current commercial options and where the industry needs to go for the market to become large.
5:00 Enabling Energy Mobility via the Cloud
Nick Reva, Manager, PwC
The advent of powerful computing services via the cloud has started to transform how society interacts with technology. As next-generation batteries make their way into vehicles and new infrastructure is rolled-out, demand for real-time management & monitoring systems will increase. Cloud Computing can play a big role in development of smart grids, real-time connectivity, charging infrastructure, management and monitoring systems. This talk will provide a primer on Cloud Computing services, why they matter and what they can do for the energy industry.
5:30 Iron Disulfide Cathode Material with New Properties for Li-FeS2 Secondary Battery
Elena Shembel, Ph.D., CEO, Enerize Corporation
Enerize has developed electrochemical system Li-FeS2 with breakthrough properties – good cyclability at ambient temperature. Results will be presented of the investigation of electrochemical properties of a) mono crystalline FeS2 at different orientations of the crystal surface, b) thin films of FeS2 fabricated by vacuum deposition and gas detonation deposition, and c) porous electrodes fabricated using technology based on slurry. Iron-disulfide is an inexpensive and non-toxic material with high tap density, which provides high volumetric energy of Li-FeS2 cells. Li-FeS2 secondary cell has a low self-discharge, which is an important additional benefit as compared with Li secondary cells, which use other cathode materials based on sulfur.
5:45 End of Day One
Wednesday, April 30, 2014(Times are U.S. Pacific Daylight Time)
8:00 Session Log In
8:50 Chairperson's Opening RemarksRoel C.M. Bosch, PhD, Manager Innovations, Roth and Rau B.V., The Netherlands
BATTERY TESTING & SAFETY
9:00 Analytical Investigation of the Failure Mechanisms of Lithium-Sulfur Cells
Holger Schneider, PhD, BASF Corporation*
Lithium-sulfur batteries are attractive candidates for post-Li-ion battery systems, offering both superior theoretical capacities and thus high energy densities. However, their practical application is hampered by several severe challenges. We were able to show that the cell performance is strongly influenced by both the amount of electrolyte and the sulfur active material. Moreover, we performed extensive analytical investigations on the decomposition products and gases formed upon cycling the cells. Our findings are discussed in detail in this presentation. *In collaboration with: K.Leitner, H.Sommer, J.Kulisch, T.Weissa, M.Safonta, BASF and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
9:30 ENERGY STAR and CEC Requirements for Battery Chargers
Rich Byczek, Global Technical Lead, Electric Vehicle and Energy Storage, Intertek
Meeting ENERGY STAR and California Energy Commission (CEC) requirements is key for market success. Product testing ensures electrical systems and components are compliant with international safety and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements, including pre-compliance and test plan development services. During this presentation, we will discuss the requirements and testing needed for small and industrial battery chargers, focusing on the requirements for ENERGY STAR and California Energy Commission (CEC).
10:00 What We’ve Learned from Testing >250,000 Cells: New Cell Evaluation Methods and Data Mining Techniques Derived from High Throughput Screening
Steven Kaye, PhD, CSO, Wildcat Discovery Technologies, Inc.
Wildcat Discovery Technologies uses a proprietary high throughput synthesis and screening platform for battery materials. Wildcat’s system produces materials in bulk form, enabling evaluation of its properties in a standard cell configuration. This allows simultaneous optimization of all aspects of the cell, including the active materials, binders, separator, electrolyte and additives. Over the past 3 years, we have screened over 250,000 cells, developing new cathodes, anodes, and electrolytes for a variety of battery types (primary, secondary, aqueous, non-aqueous). In this talk, I will discuss what we’ve learned from this work. Specifically, new analysis methods to extract more information from each cell, which performance metrics are most predictive of long term cycle life and other failure modes, and sensitivity of performance metrics to changes in cell components. I will also discuss new high throughput cell evaluation methods in use at Wildcat, including high precision coulometery and in-situ gas evolution measurement.
10:30 Session Break
11:00 Safety Standardization for Wireless EV Charging Systems
Joseph Bablo, Primary Designated Engineer, Underwriters Laboratories
As wireless charging innovation has gained momentum, so too has the development of safety standards that begin to address fire and shock hazards, as well as functional safety and interoperability. This presentation will discuss some of the key safety considerations with respect to wireless charging, as well as a unique collaboration between UL, SAE and IEC to promote safer wireless connections between electric vehicles and the electric grid.
11:30 Reversible Overcharge Protection for Safer and Longer Lasting Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
Guoying Chen, PhD, Research Scientist, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
With the growing demand of EV and grid storage, the existing $11B Li-ion battery market worldwide is expected to exceed $43B by 2020. Lithium cells are known to suffer from safety and lifetime issues upon abuse, particularly overcharge/overdischarge following which energetic venting, ignition, and even explosion can occur. Current protection methods of using electronic controls add significant weight and volume to the pack. The use of internal shutdown mechanisms reduces the usable capacity and adds to the burden of the remaining cells in parallel circuits. A novel approach was developed at LBNL where electroactive polymers capable of forming a voltage-regulated, reversible resistive shunt between the current collectors were introduced to prevent cells from overcharge damage. Recent progress, including the development of electroactive polymers that provide protection for high-energy cells intended for vehicular applications and novel electroactive-fiber membranes that drastically reduce the cost and improve the stability of overcharge protection, will be presented.
12:00 Increasing Scrutiny and Regulation of Small Lithium Batteries
Jim Powell, President, Transportation Development Group LLC
In 2014, stricter shipping regulations take effect for small lithium batteries that may now be considered “Dangerous Goods” requiring a hazard label and shipper’s certification. This is a lot of work and expense to ship a few AA lithium cells or other batteries. New rules for ground transport have raised the penalty for an undeclared lithium battery shipment to $20,000 and $40,000 per violation for ground and air transport respectively.
12:30 Session Break
1:55 Chairperson's Opening Remarks Rich Byczek, Global Technical Lead, Electric Vehicle and Energy Storage, Intertek
2:00 Battery Aging: Using Modeling to Predict Battery Life
Tom O’Hara, Global Business Manager, Advisory Services for Energy Storage, Intertek
Battery modeling and simulation helps manufacturers analyze operating conditions and design parameters for batteries and other electrochemical systems and processes to understand how they affect battery life and performance. In this presentation we will discuss the benefits of modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries. He’ll also explain how test results provide data to predict battery life, analyze implications of operating conditions and design parameters, and understand battery limitations.
2:30 Solid State Li-Ion Batteries
Hélène Rouault, PhD, R&D Project Manager in Advanced Batteries, French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), France; and Julio Abusleme, PhD, R&D Project Manager, Solay S.A., Belgium
The next generation of portable electronic devices which could revolutionize the smart communication access and control in very large domain of applications are requested to be unbreakable and bendable. Consequently, the components of such products as the display, the electronic circuit board and also the embedded power source have to offer flexible and resistant structure. CEA and Solvay jointly have so engaged a large program of development on innovative bendable lithium-ion batteries, using monolithic gelled structure from specific PVdF based inks, making them conformable and flexible.
3:00 High Performance Direct Carbon Fuel Cell by Using Pyrolyzed Carbon from Biomass and Waste Sources
Wenbin Hao, Dept of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
The promise of direct carbon fuel cell arises not only from diversity of available fuels and high operating efficiency, but also a solid infrastructure for scale-up, including transportation, storage, and processing of fuels. In our work, three kinds of carbon fuels from carbon black (CB), bamboo fiber (BC) and waste paper (WPC) are investigated as the anode fuels in the intermediate temperature direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC). The surface compositions of the prepared carbons are carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the carbon from new carbonaceous waste paper shows more elemental rich in Al, Ca and Mg than the other two carbons. The prepared carbons are tested in anode support type DCFC by using samaria doped ceria (SDC) as the electrolyte at 650˚C. The cell performance with the carbon generated from waste paper yielded a peak power density of as high as 225mW/cm2, which is about 2 times higher than that with carbon black. *In collaboration with: Xiaojin He, Yongli Mi
3:30 Concluding Discussion & Close of Conference
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