Recent significant innovations within lithium-ion batteries have propelled the technology into a position in the marketplace far exceeding recent market survey results. Breakthroughs in new battery chemistries, novel electrode and electrolyte materials, system integration for a vast array of mobile and portable applications, from micro medical devices to high-energy/high-power automotive, have paved the roadmap for an emerging market with unlimited potential.
This 5th Annual Conference in our Lithium Mobile PowerSM series will guide you from technology and materials development through device packaging and integration to applications in a mobile power marketplace by exploring the following topics:
- Li-ion batteries for PHEV, HEV, and EV – issues and solutions
- Revolutionizing Li-ion batteries for portable and consumer products
- Materials challenges - electrodes and electrolytes
- Safety, testing, performance
- System design & integration
More than 130 Organizations to Participate
A.T. Wall Company
Adhesives Research, Inc.
Advance Research Chemicals, Inc.
Advanced Battery Technology
Amtek Research International
Applied Materials AKT
Argonne National Laboratory
Battery Design LLC
Battery Power Products and Technology
California Institute of Technology
Carnegie Mellon University
CD - adapco
CEA - LITEN
Chroma ATE Inc.
Concurrent Technologies Corporation
DNP Corporation USA
Electric Boat Drives LLC
Excellatron Solid State
General Dynamics C4 Systems
Hirose Paper Mfg.
Hollingsworth & Vose
Infinite Power Solutions
Institute for Energy Technology
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Lab for Physical Sciences
Leclanche Lithium GmbH
Mass High Tech
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Miele & Cie KG
Mobile Power Solutions
Mobius Power, Inc.
Naval Ordnance Safety and Security Activity
Naval Sea Systems Command
Naval Surface Warfare Center
Naval Undersea Warfare Center
Netzsch Instruments North America LLC
Next American City
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Panasonic Energy Solutions Lab
PolyPlus Battery Company
Progressive Technologies Inc.
Sanyo Energy (USA)
Sasol North America
SouthWest Electronic Energy Group
The A to Z of Cleantech
The A to Z of Materials
The Dow Chemical Company
The Knowledge Foundation
Thermal Hazard Technology
U.S. Army Research Laboratory
University of Oulu
University of Rhode Island
University of Texas at Austin
University of Virginia
University of Windsor
Volkswagen Group of America
Wildcat Discovery Technologies
A variety of conference sponsorships are available which offer incremental levels of visibility to conference delegates at the event — as well as opportunities for marketing exposure prior to the event. Taking advantage of pre-conference options has the added benefit of getting your organization’s name out to a large group of interested decision makers.
Networking Event Sponsorships
These “mini” sponsorships offer representatives of your organization a dedicated opportunity to network with conference delegates — with your organization clearly recognized as the host of the event.
Your company may sponsor an instructional workshop (subject to approval) for delegates in conjunction with the conference. Highlight your organization’s expertise! Delegate feedback indicates that these scientific/technical vehicles enhance retention of your organization’s presence in their minds — increasing the potential for drawing customers long after the conference is over. Call Craig Wohlers at (617) 232-7400 ext. 205 or email custserv @ knowledgefoundation.com today for pricing information and customization options.
Media Sponsors & Conference Partners
For more information on Media Sponsor benefits, please contact David Mello at 617-232-7400 x203.
Lithium Mobile Power 2009 Exhibitors
Thursday, November 12, 2009
8:00 Registration, Exhibit Viewing/Poster Setup, Coffee and Pastries
8:50 Organizer’s Welcome and Opening Remarks
K.M. Abraham, PhD, Chief Technology Officer, E-KEM Sciences; and Research Professor, Northeastern University
APPLICATION DRIVEN Li-ION BATTERY DEVELOPMENT
9:00 Materials and Design Strategies for High Power Li-Ion Batteries for HEV and PHEV
This presentation will review the state of the art in material choices for cell and battery construction, performance, safety and price of high power Li-ion batteries for HEV and PHEV applications
9:45 PHEV Battery Performance in a Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Utilization Scenario: A Technological and Economic Analysis
Jay Whitacre, PhD, Assistant Professor, Materials for Electrochemical Technologies Lab, Dept Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University*
This talk will describe work done to examine the degradation of common LiFePO4-based Li-ion batteries when used in urban driving conditions combined with afternoon grid-level load shifting (V2G). A technical evaluation of cell performance will be given and an economic model will be presented that shows the potential benefits of using V2G/smart grid technology with PHEV battery packs.
*In collaboration with: S.Peterson and J.Apt, Carnegie Mellon University
10:15 Transforming Lithium Ion Superpolymer Battery Technology from the Lab to Commercial Electric Vehicles
Sankar Das Gupta, PhD, Chairman & Chief Executive Officer, Electrovaya Inc., Canada
This paper will explore the steps and lessons that Electrovaya has taken with regard to transforming its technology innovations from the lab into commercial electric vehicle applications. Clean transportation is enabled by its energy storage solution. Electrovaya’s Lithium Ion SuperPolymer technology has transformed over the years as it has evolved with underlying chemistries, from the earliest days of cobaltate, to phosphate, to manganese. In addition to the fundamentals in nanomaterials and new chemistry innovations, Electrovaya has also focused on the broader elements that are necessary for commercialization of electric vehicle product. This is the focus of this paper. Specifically, it will investigate strategies to overcome thermal variance, vibration tolerance, packaging, and scale-up issues.
10:45 Networking Refreshment Break, Exhibit/Poster Viewing
11:15 Changing the Way the World Views Portable Power
Per Onnerud, PhD, Chief Technical Officer, Boston-Power Inc.
In this presentation, we will share insights into user demand for untethered mobility and the advancements in lithium-ion battery technology poised to fulfill that requirement. New benchmarks in cycle life, performance, reliability, fast charge, environmental sustainability and safety will be highlighted. We will also discuss a new industry model where battery providers work directly with designers of end-products, ranging from portable electronics to vehicles, to deliver whole new generations of products optimized to meet customers’ increasing demands for anywhere, anytime mobility.
11:45 Beyond Li-Ion, A Strategy for Step-Change Improvement in Energy Density
Steven J. Visco, PhD, Chief Technical Officer and Vice President, PolyPlus Battery Company
The invention of protected lithium electrodes (PLEs) enables the development of a new generation of ultra-high energy density batteries. These electrochemical systems are semi-fuel cells where a PLE is coupled with an external redox species supplied to the positive electrode (i.e. oxygen or water). Isolation of the oxidant from the battery housing is expected to yield benefits in terms of safety in that the energy for the cell reaction is not contained in the battery itself; this may be particularly important for large traction batteries. The unique aspects of these PLE cells offer step-change improvements in batteries on land, in the sea, and in medical devices. The state-of-the-art will be covered in the presentation.
12:15 A123’s Nanophosphate Technology for Next Generation High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries
Yasuhiko Hina, Staff Engineer, Lithium-Ion Battery Business Unit, Energy Company, Panasonic Corporation, Japan
Leslie Pinnell, PhD, Director, Research & Development, A123 Systems
A123 Systems is a leading U.S. developer and manufacturer of advanced high power lithium-ion battery technology. Our goal is to provide advanced energy storage solutions that enable significant improvements in the efficiency of transportation, the electric grid and consumer products, thereby facilitating greener vehicles, a cleaner grid, and contributing to the protection of our natural environment. This presentation provides an overview of A123’s technology and the products which enable A123 to meet this goal.
12:30 Luncheon Sponsored by the Knowledge Foundation’s Membership Program
2:00 Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Ni-Based Cathode Material for High Capacity and Reliability
MATERIALS CHALLENGES - ELECTRODES
At this time, many mobile devices powered by Li-ion batteries require high energy density. Our solution to satisfy this advanced technology requirement takes advantage of Ni-based cathodes already in use in our Li-ion battery. We will report on the features and benefits of this advanced Ni-based cathode technology.
2:30 CAM-7: A Unique Cathode Material Providing Both High Energy Density and High Power for Li-Ion
3:00 High Energy Density Lithium Cells
Brian M. Barnett, PhD, Vice President of Technology, TIAX LLC
Culminating several years' work, TIAX has developed CAM-7, a unique, high energy, high power, safe cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. CAM-7 is able to offer significant advantages for both automotive applications and non-automotive applications. CAM-7 is a patented lithium nickelate-class material that has been optimized for safety. CAM-7 is unique among cathode material options in that it combines extraordinarily high power capability (more than 130 mAh/g at 100C discharge rate) with the highest available energy density, more than 210 mAh/g to normal charging voltage (4.2 V). This talk will summarize the CAM-7 development effort and present data regarding CAM-7 performance in portable as well as transportation applications.
Sébastien Patoux, PhD, DRT/LITEN/DTH/LCE, French Atomic Energy Commission - CEA, France
The presentation will first focus on high capacity (LiMO2•LiMn2O3) layered oxides as a promising solution for the positive electrode of Li-ion batteries. We will present the latest results obtained at CEA-LITEN on this family of materials, with very good reversible capacity at the level of 250mAh/g at room temperature. At the negative electrode, the interest in silicon-carbon composites has been abundantly discussed in the literature. Here, several synthesis routes investigated at CEA-LITEN, from CVD process to mecano-chemical route, an others, will be discussed together with optimization of the electrode making. Results on 2-3Ah prototype cells will finally be reported with a significant improvement in energy density.
3:30 Nano-Li4Ti5O12 Based Lithium Ion Battery for HEV and PHEV Application
Veselin Manev, PhD, Director R&D, Altairnano Inc.
The performance of high specific power & high rate capability cells with nano-Li4Ti5O12 negative electrodes developed in particular for HEV and PHEV application will be discussed. Data for capacity retention during continuous discharge at up to 80C rate corresponding to 45 sec cell’s full discharge duration will be displayed. The cycle life in excess of 25,000 cycles, at 8C charge/discharge rate & 100% DOD will be presented. Particular attention will be paid on the excellent calendar life performance of Altairnano’s Li4Ti5O12 based cells. A data from accelerated calendar life test suggesting capacity fade below 1% after 25 years calendar life at room temperature will be displayed. Finally the results from safety tests performed on these cells showing no safety events will be displayed.
4:00 Networking Refreshment Break, Exhibit/Poster Viewing
APPLICATION DRIVEN Li-ION BATTERY DEVELOPMENT - II
4:30 Development of Materials for Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries for NASA’s Upcoming Lunar Missions
Ratnakumar Bugga, PhD, Principal Member Technical Staff, Electrochemical Technologies Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
The performance requirements for rechargeable batteries are unique for space applications and Li-ion batteries, owing to their superior performance characteristics, and are becoming the preferred choice for many of NASA’s space missions. Yet, there is a need to further extend the performance envelope of Li-ion batteries to enable the upcoming human exploration missions to moon and subsequently to Mars. To address these needs, NASA is undertaking a technology program to develop advanced cathodes and electrolytes for Li-ion cells with enhanced specific energies and safety. Some of our recent results of these studies will be presented here.
5:00 Large Format Li-Ion Batteries Development at Leclanché
*In collaboration with: Marshall Smart and William West
Karl-Heinz Pettinger, PhD, Head of R&D, Leclanché Lithium GmbH, Germany
Lithium-ion batteries are becoming more and more important in the world market of energy devices. The applications of a new generation of lithium ion cells goes from automotive to solar, passing through all telecom and standby/emergency applications. All of these and other possible application areas share the same need for reduced material costs, long life, very high safety and increased utilization temperature range. Leclanché has developed large format Li-ion cells for diverse applications. Various cell sizes (10-20 Ah) are currently available and those cells are the building blocks for different batteries design adapted for costumers. In the present paper, we would like to present some development trends and the performance of large format Li-ion cells in terms of specific energy, power and life.
5:30 Ambient Operation of Li/Air Batteries
Jason Zhang, PhD, Chief Scientist, Battery Technology Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Li/air batteries have attracted significant attention recently because their theoretical specific energy is much higher than other battery systems. Most of previous works on Li/air batteries have been done in pure oxygen environment. However, ambient operation is required to realize the full potential of Li/air batteries. Our works on primary Li/air batteries operated in ambient conditions will be reported in this presentation. Various factors (including electrolyte selection, oxygen selective membranes, and high capacity electrode preparations) which affect battery operations will be analyzed. At last, the main challenges on the ambient operation of Li/air batteries will be discussed.
6:00 High Energy Density Li/CFx Battery for Soldier Portable Power Sources
Sheng S. Zhang, PhD, Research Chemist, Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory*
Lithium/carbon monofluoride (Li/CFx with x=1) batteries are known to have the highest theoretical specific capacity among all commercially available primary lithium batteries. These batteries are being developed by the Army to reduce the size of current BA-5590 battery packs for soldier portable power sources. Main problems of Li/CFx batteries are the low power capability and the initial voltage delay, which are related to the intrinsically low electrical conductivity of CFx material and the slow kinetics of Li-CFx cell reaction. These problems result in heat generation in the discharge of Li/CFx batteries, especially at high current rates or at low temperatures. In an ac-impedance spectrum, the slow kinetics is indicated by a high cell reaction resistance (Rcr) that is considered to be the main source for the heat generation of Li/CFx batteries. In order to improve power capability of such batteries, we attempted two approaches: (1) thermal treatment of CFx material in the presence of an organic compound or carbon back as an additional carbon source to form carbon subfluorinate (CFx-d) that is known to have better power capability, and (2) use of a LiBF4-AN (acetonitrile)/BL (g-butyrolactone) electrolyte in which the reactivity of metal lithium with AN is suppressed while the substantially high ionic conductivity is remained. In this presentation, we report improvement on the discharge performance of Li/CFx batteries by these two approaches.
*In collaboration with: D.Foster and J.Read
6:30 End of Day One
Friday, November 13, 2009
8:00 Exhibit Viewing/Poster Setup, Coffee and Pastries
9:00 Electrolyte Solution for Li Ion Batteries
MATERIALS CHALLENGES - ELECTROLYTE
Doron Aurbach, PhD, Professor, Head of Electrochemistry Group, Dept of Chemistry,
Bar Ilan University, Israel
We review in this talk the main families of solvents relevant to Li ion batteries and the Li salts available as electrolytes. Matching solution compositions to the types of system used (e.g. high voltage systems, batteries with Li metal anode, batteries for low temperatures) is thoroughly discussed. Main electrode-solutions interactions and surface chemistry in conventional & advanced Li ion batteries is reviewed. Thermal reactions of selected important systems are discussed as well. We describe families of ionic liquids that can be relevant to Li batteries and report about new work on this important topic. Possible use of additives for several purposes: electrodes surface modification, enhanced safety features, over-charge protection etc. with several working examples, is discussed as well.
9:30 Role of Electrolyte on the Formation of Electrode Surface Films in Lithium Ion Batteries
Brett Lucht, PhD, Professor of Chemistry, University of Rhode Island
The development of lithium ion battery (LIB) electrolytes with improved thermal and electrochemical stability for electric vehicle (EV) applications will be presented. Typical LIB electrolytes have poor thermal stability. Significant energy fading occurs after several years. We have conducted an analysis of the reactions of common electrolytes on the surface of the electrodes after initial formation cycling and upon accelerated aging. Additives and novel salts were designed to improve performance.
10:00 Rechargeable MnO2 in Aqueous Lithium Electrolyte: Good News and Bad News from a Battery Perspective
Manickam Minakshi, PhD, Senior Research Fellow, Dept of Extractive Metallurgy, Murdoch University, Australia
A new class of rechargeable manganese dioxide electrode (MnO2) in aqueous electrolyte is described. Intercalation of lithium from the LiOH electrolyte into the vacant sites of a host MnO2 has been achieved electrochemically is good news. The formation of a lithium carbonate layer from a LiOH electrolyte acts as a barrier for protons while permitting lithium ion insertion in aqueous solutions forming lithium intercalated manganese dioxide (LixMnO2) upon discharge. This novel mechanism may be a key in transferring primary to secondary batteries using LiOH as electrolyte.
10:30 Networking Refreshment Break, Exhibit/Poster Viewing
SAFETY, TESTING, PERFORMANCE
11:00 Lithium Battery Platform Hazard Evaluation and Criteria
Clinton Winchester, PhD, Group Leader & Senior Technologist, Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC)*
The Navy has an active risk reduction and risk assessment technical effort aimed at lithium battery powered systems. Recent evolutions are aimed at quantifying risks to platform and personnel safety posed by “large format” lithium batteries, defined as large either as an accumulation of large high capacity cells or an accumulation of distributed batteries that equal equivalent energy storage. These large batteries and battery systems are similar or greater in size to electric vehicles and plug-in electric vehicle systems, utilize significantly more hazardous chemistries, and involve non-ideal conditions for operation and storage. The Navy has undertaken an aggressive risk reduction activity to quantitatively understand, test, and models reactions of large format lithium batteries to determine the survivability and mitigation of these battery fires, chemical releases. This effort will support risk analysis of battery driven events under a variety of ship and submarine casualty models. We will describe the recent events driving the expansion of quantitative, technical assessments in defining risks and casualties, as well as describing various results and initial finds.
*In collaboration with: D.Fuentevilla, E.Shields, J.Banner, NSWC Carderock; J.Dow, Naval Ordnance Safety and Security Activity; and D.Cherry, Naval Sea Systems Command
11:30 IEEE 1725 and Cellular Products
Snehal Dalal, PhD, Manager Electrical Practice, Exponent Failure Analysis Associates
IEEE 1725 standard was developed for single series cell rechargeable lithium ion and lithium polymer batteries. These batteries are typically used in cellular device applications but can be found in other battery powered products as well. The CTIA developed a battery certification program to verify the conformance of cellular devices to IEEE1725. This presentation describes the CTIA certification process and how it applies to a lithium ion and lithium polymer rechargeable battery powered cellular product.
12:00 Lithium Battery Safety and Performance; Applications of Calorimetry
Martyn Ottaway, PhD, Founder, Thermal Hazard Technology, England
As lithium batteries are being applied to more and more applications - commencing with small batteries (e.g. cell phones and laptops) culminating in large batteries, modules and packs (e.g. satellites and cars), there are many and varied challenges that relate to their performance and safety. A key aspect is heat release and thermal management. Calorimetry facilitates a quantitative understanding of thermal (and pressure) issues. Calorimetry has been employed to
(i) Determine effect of heat on and the heat generated by Li Batteries;
(ii) Understand aspects such as chemistry change, effects of use and ageing, problems with abuse - overcharging, penetration and crush;
(iii) Quantify such effect on all battery size and to measure the thermal distribution over the battery surface;
(iv) Measure the pressure generated internally within the battery and externally with the ability to analyze gas products.
This presentation will focus on newer areas of applications such as thermal management of automotive packs, rapid discharge issues for vehicle and power tools batteries.
12:30 Lunch on Your Own
SYSTEM DESIGN AND INTEGRATION
2:00 Product Study Showcase:
High Performance Li-Ion Battery Separator Made of Nanofiber Overlaid Nonwoven
Yoshinori Kishimoto, Director, Advanced Functional Materials Department, Hirose Paper Mfg. Co., Ltd, Japan*
We have established production technology of a high performance Li-ion Battery separator using advanced electrospinning technology of nanofibers. This Nanofiber Separator consists of ultra-thin wet-laid nonwoven which is made of PE/PP sheath-core fibers and a PVA nanofiber layer overlaid on the nonwoven surface. Nanofiber Separator is considerably thinner than the conventional polyethylene-based separator, and it can be precisely controlled in the15-30 µm range. High melting point of PVA nanofibers makes the meltdown temperature of the separator to be over 200 ºC which is significantly higher than that of polyethylene-based microporus membrane separator. Nanofiber separator is suitable for the high power cell due to its extremely porous structure which allows fast movement of Li ion between the electrodes.
*In collaboration with: Shoji Okada, Hiroki Nanko
2:30 Internal Short Circuit in Li-Ion Cells
Hossein Maleki, PhD, Staff Scientist, Motorola Energy Systems Group, Motorola
Today’s Li-ion cells using LiCoO2 as cathode material are potentially vulnerable to internal short circuit (ISCr). We have investigated the effects of ISCr on thermal stability of Li-ion cells of various sizes (130 - 1100 mAh) using a combination of experimental (small nail penetration, small indentation, and cell pinch), thermal modeling, and IR-imaging. Among these, only the cell pinch test provides reasonable approximation of a high risk ISCr event. ISCr location plays a critical role in the consequences of an ISCr event. The effects of cell capacity and state of charge on ISCr are also evaluated.
3:00 Modeling of Battery Systems and Installations for Automotive Applications
Richard Johns, PhD, Automotive Technology Director, CD-adapco, United Kingdom*
The design of lithium-ion batteries can now be addressed using the full power of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software coupled with electrochemical modeling. The Star-CCM+ CFD software that is widely used in the automotive industry for applications such as aerodynamics, powertrain, vehicle thermal management, passenger comfort and aeroacoustics, and aftertreatment has been extended to include battery models that enable for the first time accurate design of battery systems for hybrid electric vehicles. The ability to rigorously account for heat-transfer allows for accurate estimates of temperature profiles in both cells and packs, and so enables design of long-lived batteries. The methodology and examples will be presented.
*In collaboration with: Robert Spotnitz, Battery Design LLC
3:30 Networking Refreshment Break, Exhibit/Poster Viewing
3:45 Designing the Battery Management System (BMS)
Ken Chisholm, Vice President of Engineering, Vecture Inc., Canada
The presentation provides an informative and useful appreciation of the considerations, methods and realisation of the battery management system (BMS). Safety, energy management (fuel gauging), cell balancing and embedded charging are considered. Other system functions such as DC/DC conversion are briefly discussed with the pack becoming a wider utility sub system component. The realisation of the BMS in a hot cramped world (heat, space & connectivity) is reviewed. Completing the presentation a discussion on assembly and testing of the battery pack.
4:15 Li-Ion Battery Life Extension - Charging and Discharging Strategies
Kathryn Miles, PhD, Chief Technology Officer, EEtrex Incorporated d/b/a Hybrids Plus, Inc.
We will discuss cycling, charge and discharge strategies to extend the life of lithium Ion battery systems, as well as the integration of "Smart Charging" with the battery system.
4:45 Selected Oral Poster Highlights/Concluding Discussion
5:15 End of Conference
Industry, government and academic scientists are encouraged to submit proposals for technical poster presentations for this event. One-page abstracts (8 1/2" x 11" with 1-inch margins) must be submitted via e-mail SUBMIT@knowledgefoundation.com no later than October 15, 2009 for inclusion in conference documentation. Additional poster submissions will be accepted until November 1, 2009 but may not be included in conference documentation.
DIMENSIONS of the poster boards are 4 feet (120 cm) wide by 3 feet (90 cm) high
(although posterboards could be placed vertically as well and then the dimentsions obviously would be 3' w x 4' h).
Note: If you're submitting a poster, you MUST be registered and paid registration fee plus posterboard reservation fee in advance to ensure that a posterboard is reserved for you.
Registration fee includes lunch on the first day of the Conference, refreshments, access to posters and exhibit, and all documentation made available to us by speakers.
Become a member of the Knowledge Foundation Technology Commercialization Alliance and save NOW 15% of your conference registration or publications purchase.
Visit www.knowledgefoundation.com Membership Section to join now.
* On-site registration - add US $100 to below amounts
Non-member: US $1199.00
Member: US $1099.00
Non-member: US $799.00
Member: US $679.00
Poster Space Reservation fee: US $65 (you must be registered for the Conference)
The academic/government rate is extended to all participants registering as full time employees of government and universities. To receive the academic/government rate you must not be affiliated with any private organizations either as consultants or owners or part owners of businesses.
All payments must be made in U.S. funds drawn on a U.S. bank. Please make check(s) payable to The Knowledge Foundation and attach to the registration form even if you have registered by phone, fax or e-mail. To guarantee your registration, payment must be received prior to the conference. Confirmation of your booking will follow.
Exhibiting/Sponsoring Please contact Craig Wohlers at (617) 232-7400 ext. 205 or email firstname.lastname@example.org for all inquiries.
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Hilton Boston Back Bay
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Boston, MA 02115
For Hotel Reservations Contact:
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A substitute member of your company may replace your attendance at any time at no charge if you find your schedule prevents you from attending. Please notify us immediately so that materials can be prepared. If you do not wish to substitute your registration, we regret that your cancellation will be subject to a $100 processing fee. To receive a prompt refund, we must receive your cancellation in writing 30 days prior to the conference. Unfortunately cancellations cannot be accepted after that date. In the event that The Knowledge Foundation cancels an event, The Knowledge Foundation cannot resume responsibility for any travel-related costs.