Lithium-ion batteries contain more energy per unit of weight than conventional batteries, which contributes to their success but also creates safety concerns. The same properties that result in high- energy density also pose potential hazards if the energy is released at a fast, uncontrolled rate. Therefore, safety is of great interest to the industry, resulting in areas of intense research.
The Knowledge Foundation's Lithium Battery Safety conference track addresses innovations and technologies that improve safety, reliability and degradation management of lithium batteries.
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Tuesday, April 21
8:00 am Workshop Registration
8:30-11:30 Pre-Conference Workshops*
- Battery Transportation Safety: Safe and Efficient Technological Strategies for Compliant Battery Transportation
View Workshop Details
* Separate registration required.
12:00 pm Main Conference Registration
1:00 Chairperson’s Opening Remarks
Dirk Spiers, Spiers New Technologies
1:10 Tracking Structural and Electrochemical Changes at the Nanoscale on Lithium Battery Material while Cycling
Jun Wang, Ph.D., Lead Scientist and Industrial Research Program Manager, Photon Science Directorate, Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy
In situ observation of 3D microstructural evolution at the nanometer scale offers a direct way to look inside the electrochemical reaction of batteries to better understand the mechanism of structural degradation, to guide the engineering and processing of advanced electrode materials, and to produce accurate 3D parameters for theoretical simulations. Our research results of tracking the structural and electrochemical changes at the nanoscale will be presented.
1:40 Advanced Redox Shuttle Additives for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Battery
Zhengcheng (John) Zhang, Ph.D., Senior Research Chemist & Group Leader, Advanced Electrolyte Research Group, Electrochemical Energy Storage Theme, Argonne National Laboratory
Redox shuttles (RS) are essentially organic compounds which can be reversibly oxidized/reduced at an intrinsic redox potential. Among many applications, overcharge protection for lithium-ion batteries is the most significant one. Argonne National Laboratory has developed RS technology that could tolerate overcharge abuse, thus greatly enhancing the safety of the lithium-ion battery. In this talk, redox shuttle technology developed for LiFePO4, LiMO2 and high-voltage lithium-ion chemistries will be presented.
2:10 Life Cycle Management of High-Voltage Battery Packs
Dirk Spiers, President, Spiers New Technologies
Almost all advanced battery systems right now are designed with assumptions and based on simulated testing. Our unique approach consists of “exit interviews” of packs coming back out of the field. What kind of failure modes do we see, are packs safe and what can we learn from these “old” packs?
2:40 Designing Robust Redox Shuttles with Extended Overcharge Protection
Susan Odom, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Chemistry, University of Kentucky
The design of robust redox shuttles for overcharge protection is a challenging task. It has been postulated that redox shuttle lifetimes are limited by the stability of their oxidized forms, yet little experimental data has been gathered to verify whether proposed decomposition mechanisms are realistic. Here we present characterization of the reactions of redox shuttle candidates and show that both the stability of the neutral and oxidized forms affect performance.
3:10 Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)
3:40 Refreshment Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing
4:15 Chairperson’s Remarks
Kang Xu, Ph.D., U.S. Army Research Laboratory
PLENARY KEYNOTE SESSION
4:20 Materials Design to Increase Energy and Improve Safety
Yi Cui, Ph.D., Associate Professor, David Filo and Jerry Yang
Faculty Scholar, Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford
Novel materials to increase battery energy density, including
silicon, phosphorus, lithium metal and sulfur will be covered.
Nanostructure design and smart battery separators to enhance safety
will also be presented.
4:55 Energy Storage – The Interplay between Performance, Cost and Safety
Ping Liu, Ph.D., Program Director, ARPA-E, U.S. Department
Continuous cost reduction of energy storage systems is critical to realize mass adoption of electric vehicles. The leading approach of employing high specific energy batteries requires system level designs to ensure safety. The ARPA-E RANGE program takes an alternative approach, which develops inherently safer chemistries and architectures that may also serve structural functions on a vehicle to reduce system weight. This approach opens up the possibility of a variety of low-cost novel chemistries and designs. We will highlight a diverse set of technologies including aqueous, solid state, and flow batteries, as well as multifunctional designs. Finally, emerging trends and research needs will be discussed.
5:30 Welcome Reception in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing
6:30 Close of Day
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Wednesday, April 22
7:30 am Java and Jive Breakfast Breakout Discussion Groups
Grab coffee and breakfast and join a discussion group. These are moderated discussions with brainstorming and interactive problem solving, allowing conference participants from diverse backgrounds to exchange ideas and experiences and develop future collaborations around a focused topic.
The session will conclude with brief reports from each discussion group.
View Breakout Discussion Details
9:00 Chairperson’s Remarks
Ahmad Pesaran, Ph.D., National Renewable Energy Laboratory
9:05 Improving Battery Safety through Multiphysics Modeling
Ahmad Pesaran, Ph.D., Energy Storage Group Manager, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Electrochemical, thermal, chemical and mechanical processes in a battery are complex. Detailed modeling can provide insight on why batteries may become unsafe under certain conditions such as thermal ramp, crush and internal short circuit. NREL has developed multiphysics models to investigate these complex interactions. We present example results of battery thermal runaway and potential solutions that could improve safety of advanced batteries leading to increased market acceptance of electric vehicles.
9:35 Multiscale/Multiphysics Modeling for Performance and Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Srikanth Allu, Ph.D., Computational Scientist, Computational Engineering and Energy Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Electrochemical systems such as lithium-ion batteries are highly complex, exhibiting nonlinear interactions over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Reliable prediction of battery life, state-of-health, performance and safety is governed by a number of electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes covering multiple length and time scales. This talk presents details (along with examples) about a new open computational framework designed to support a variety of modeling components covering a wide range of scales and physics relevant to Li-ion batteries.
10:05 Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)
10:35 Coffee Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing
11:00 Advancing Battery Safety through Materials Development and Testing
Christopher J. Orendorff, Ph.D., Principal Investigator, Battery Safety R&D Program, Sandia National Laboratories
As energy storage systems increase in size from Wh to kWh (or even MWh), safety and reliability of these systems will become increasingly important. In addition to the widely publicized physical hazards associated with these systems, issues related to health hazards and environmental impact are also important to consider, especially for large grid-tied energy storage. This presentation covers materials development approaches to mitigating hazards associated with battery failures and characterization and analysis of battery failure modes.
11:30 Is Your Safety Test Configured Correctly? The Importance of Common Ground Paths during Battery Safety Testing
Margot Wasz, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Energy Technology Department, The Aerospace Corporation
Maintaining ground isolation can mean the difference between a benign response and thermal runaway during a lithium-ion battery abuse test. How a battery should be grounded during abuse testing varies among applications, and is an important consideration when designing battery abuse tests. This talk looks at how shorting paths inside a battery may propagate following an internal cell short, and relates the role of grounding paths to a recent battery failure in the news.
12:00 pm Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)
12:30 Luncheon Presentation (Sponsorship Opportunity Available) or Enjoy Lunch on Your Own
1:45 Chairperson’s Remarks
Raymond de Callafon, Ph.D., University of California, San Diego
1:50 Modular Battery Architecture for Exchangeable Energy Storage
Raymond de Callafon, Ph.D., Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (MAE), Jacobs School of Engineering, University of California, San Diego
We give an overview of the development and design of battery modules called M-BEAM (Modular Battery Exchange and Active Management) that provide the flexibility for safely exchanging and extending portable electrical energy storage using battery modules. We share how the M-BEAM technology can accomplish this flexibility and illustrate applications of the proposed M-BEAM technology in an electric vehicle (EV) or as backup power for distributed energy resources on the electricity grid.
2:20 Exploring the Boundaries of Safety of Li-Ion Batteries
J. Thomas Chapin, Ph.D., UL Corporate Fellow and Vice President, Research, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
Li-ion battery technology is dramatically expanding and accelerating from discovery to commercialization. These new chemistries require a fundamental understanding of safety, performance and reliability as new applications arise. For these reasons and as a result of recent high-profile incidents, it is critical to evaluate cell, battery and system-level behavior. This presentation provides an overview of recent activities at UL with regards to battery research, testing and standards.
2:50 BMS Design for Robotics Applications
Sandeep Yayathi, MS, Power Systems Lead, Robonaut 2 Project, NASA Johnson Space Center
Battery Management Systems are critical for all high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Many different designs exist today; however, there are additional challenges associated with designing spaceflight systems. Fault tolerance adds a dimension of complexity to the design of space flight systems. This presentation discusses the design approach and challenges for the Robonaut 2 system onboard the International Space Station as well as other related robotic systems developed at NASA Johnson Space Center.
3:20 Refreshment Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing
4:00 Safety Testing Challenges for Grid-Scale Energy Storage Systems
Joshua Lamb, Ph.D., Research Staff, Advanced Power Sources R&D, Sandia National Laboratories
The large battery size required for grid energy storage presents unique challenges for safety evaluation. We consider such challenges of traditional safety and abuse testing of large systems, plus the need for new tests to address specific concerns of grid-scale energy storage. We highlight recent data from Sandia’s Battery Abuse Testing Laboratory on potential issues impacting large systems, including propagation of thermal runaway in battery modules and interrogation of potentially damaged batteries.
4:30 Hazard Analysis in Complex Energy Storage Systems
David M. Rosewater, PE, Energy Storage Technologies and Systems Group, Sandia National Laboratories
Safety is a complex problem. Designing battery systems to avoid fire, shock and a host of other potential accidents can be a daunting challenge that spans the whole product life cycle and beyond. Advanced hazard analysis techniques can help make sense of the problem. We direct a crash course in Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) which looks at hazards as a breakdown in process control. Safety engineering blends with process engineering to help design battery systems to be free of accidents.
5:00 Viability of Employing Storage Device for Multiple Uses Simultaneously: Results of Lithium-Ion Batteries Tested under Stacked Cycling Profiles
Summer Ferreira, Ph.D., Principal Member, Technical Staff, Sandia National Laboratories
Using a single lithium-ion battery formulation, preliminary results show the degradation in a battery’s characteristics of capacity and power density under a combined waveform of deep daily load leveling and frequent but shallow regulation cycles may be predicted from the data on its degradation under the individual waveforms. The degradation under the combined use case is moderate, making its use reasonable.
5:30 Close of Lithium Battery Safety Conference