November 12-13, 2013 • San Diego, CA USA
Congress At A Glance
AETC Congress Brochure
Breakthroughs in new battery chemistries, novel electrode and electrolyte materials, system integration for a vast array of mobile, portable and stationary applications, from micro medical devices to high-energy/high-power automotive, have paved the roadmap for an emerging market with unlimited potential. Will lithium-ion batteries deliver on the promises of the power, energy, cost and safety in commercially available energy storage systems? Or maybe the future lays somewhere beyond lithium-based chemistries? Our panel of leading experts in fields of battery materials, systems design and integration, manufacturing and commercial applications will look into emerging issues underlining this pivotal time in the battery industry.
· New chemistries & materials to increase energy/power & reduce cost · Novel materials for battery architectures: silicon, sodium· Lithium air / lithium oxygen / LiOH· Advances in flow batteries, microfluidic and redox batteries · From novel materials and components to systems architecture and integration · Meeting the EV challenge: cycle life, power & energy, cost and safety
· Hybrid battery devices
Media Sponsors and Conference Partners
Tuesday, November 12, 20138:00 Registration, Exhibit Viewing/Poster Setup, Coffee and Pastries
8:50 Organizer’s Welcome and Opening Remarks
9:00 Transformational Energy Storage Technologies For Electrical Vehicles: An Overview of the ARPA-E PortfolioPing Liu, PhD, Program Director, and Aron Newman, PhD, ARPA-E, U.S. Department of Energy
Advanced Research Projects Agency Energy (ARPA-E) has invested in transformational energy storage technology to enable more widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). This presentation will highlight some of the promising projects that are helping to drive down cost, increase range, and improve safety for EVs. Approaches for improvement include novel materials for battery architectures, lithium-air, and flow batteries. There is also a group of projects with a focus on robust designs: electrochemical energy storage chemistries and/or architectures (i.e. physical designs) that avoid thermal runaway and are immune to catastrophic failure regardless of manufacturing quality or abuse conditions.
9:30 Sodium Iron Pyrophosphate Cathode Glass-Ceramics for Sodium Ion BatteriesTsuyoshi Honma, PhD, Assistant Professor, Functional Glass Engineering Laboratory, Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan
/C composite was prepared by glass-ceramics method. We found that Na2−x
/C composite can be used as cathode active materials for Sodium ion battery with high current density rate performance over 10C (2 mA cm−2
) condition and stable electrochemical cycle performance. A 2 μm glass precursor powder in composition of Na2−x
(x = 0–0.44) was crystallized in tubular furnace around 600 °C with carbon source to reduce iron valence state and to coat grain surface with carbon. By means of charge–discharge testing Na2
/C composite exhibits 86 mAh g−1
(253 Wh kg−1
) as reversible discharge energy density that is half amount of that for LiFePO4
, however in 10C condition they kept 45 mAh g−1
(110 Wh kg−1
) even in 2 μm grain size.
10:00 Materials Design for the Sodium Conductive MaterialTaku Onishi, PhD, Assistant Professor, School of Engineering, Department Chemistry for Materials, Mie University, Japan
A sodium ion conductor for a sodium ion secondary battery was theoretically designed by hybrid DFT calculations. It was concluded that NaAlO(CN)2
shows the high sodium ion conductivity along Z-axis. The activation energy along Z-axis was estimated to be 0.06 eV. Chemical bonding analysis on conductive sodium was also performed, based on Onishi chemical bonding rule.10:30 Networking Refreshment Break, Exhibit/Poster Viewing
11:00 Development of Hydrogen-Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid Energy StorageAdam Z. Weber, PhD, Staff Scientist, Electrochemical Technologies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and
Markus S. Ding, Institute of Technical Electrochemistry, Technische Universität München, Germany
LBNL has been working on a high-power redox flow battery (RFB) by utilizing hydrogen and bromine to develop a cost-effective electrochemical system for storing grid-scale energy. In this study, we will report on technical approaches, which have been taken to develop the RFB. It will be described in detail how cell components and structure could be optimized to minimize the losses associated with kinetics, ohmic and mass transfer properties, and therefore leading to the first-in-class RFB performance. We will also report on the cyclic performance of the RFB, and especially the effect of operating conditions such as electrolyte concentration, cut-off potential, and current on the cyclic performance. Various diagnostic methods such as measurement of over-potential with open-circuit-voltage (OCV) monitoring cell, analysis of exit gas from cell with a real time gas analyzer (RTGA), and characterization of species cross-over by capillary electrophoresis (or bromide-selective electrode) were utilized to find the proper operating conditions to minimize performance loss and side reactions. This work was funded by Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (contract # DE-AC02-05CH11231) with cost share provided by Robert Bosch LLC.
*In collaboration with: K.T.Cho, V.Battaglia, and V.Srinivasan, LBNL
11:30 Efforts to Construct High Energy Density Cells using PSI’s Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite AnodeChristopher M. Lang, PhD, Group Leader, Energy Technologies, Physical Sciences Inc.
Silicon is one of the most appealing anode materials for higher energy density batteries. However, many challenges exist to efficiently access the large theoretical potential of this material. Physical Sciences Inc. has developed and demonstrated a composite material with good capacity, rate and cycling performance. In this presentation, we will present on our efforts to construct high energy density cylindrical and prismatic cells with this anode material. In particular, the impact on cycling performance of the cathode material and electrolyte choice will be examined.
12:00 A High Energy Solid State PseudocapacitorRodger Evans, PhD, Team Leader, Space Charge LLC
A solid-state pseudocapacitor promising high energy and power density pseudocapacitors are hybrid energy storage devices having the attributes of both batteries and true capacitors. Conventional pseudocapacitors utilize liquid electrolytes of very low dielectric strength, which ultimately constrain energy density. Space Charge LLC has substituted thin films comprised of materials, which have high dielectric strength and high ionic mobility. This combination of virtues supports charge storage exceeding that of advanced batteries while permitting rapid charging and potentially tens of thousands of charge-discharge cycles.
12:30 Power Conversion System Architectures for Grid Tied Energy StorageKyle B. Clark, Engineering Manager, Advanced Systems, Dynapower Corporation
The Power Conversion System (PCS) for Grid Tied Energy Storage applications is an integral component to system performance. The PCS provides the function of controlling the power flow and conversion of AC to DC and DC to AC electrical power between the storage medium and the grid. Currently there are various fundamental conversion topologies employed including, single-stage and multi-stage converters, standard three-legged IGBT based inverters, line commutated inverters and multi-level inverters. Each of these will be reviewed and the efficiency, cost drivers and merits examined. Specific application topics will include: single phase systems, three phase systems, low voltage and medium voltage interconnection, islanding methods, battery string voltage, output power quality assurance, protection mechanisms, isolated and non-isolated systems, IEEE1 1547 and UL1741 requirements and PCS controls. This presentation provides an overview of various PCS topologies and control structures employed in energy storage applications with associated advantages and disadvantages. The audience is expected to understand the basic purpose of the PCS; a prior detailed technical knowledge is not necessary. In closing the presentation will discuss recent trends in the development of grid tied energy storage PCS technology.1:00 Luncheon Sponsored by the Knowledge Foundation Membership Program
2:00 Roadmap for Next-Generation BatteriesCosmin Laslau, PhD, Analyst, Lux Research Inc.
Next-generation battery technologies such as lithium-air, lithium-sulfur, and solid-state threaten to disrupt the growing $20 billion Li-ion market. However, advancing Li-ion itself will present a moving target, as high-voltage cathodes and improved anodes move the performance needle. Lux Research looked at transportation, consumer electronics, and military applications to assess cost, performance, and outlook, and built a roadmap to show which next-generation energy storage technologies have the best chance of adoption, in which applications, and when.
2:30 Global Lithium-Ion Battery Market – Charging or DischargingVishal Sapru, Research Manager, Energy & Power Systems, Frost & Sullivan, Inc.
The presentation will focus on market opportunities for lithium-ion batteries, with an end-user focus on consumer, industrial, automotive, and renewable energy / grid storage applications. The presentation will highlight the impact of the hybrid and electric vehicle slowdown on the lithium-ion battery market, and its potential impact on the renewable/grid storage battery business. The presentation will focus on key challenges, drivers and restraints, potential market size, and trends, among others.
3:00 Discovery of High Power and High Energy Conversion Electrode for Lithium-Ion BatteriesSteven Kaye, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer, Wildcat Discovery Technology
Wildcat Discovery Technologies has developed a high throughput synthesis and screening platform for battery materials. Wildcat’s system produces materials in bulk form, enabling evaluation of its properties in a standard cell configuration. This allows simultaneous optimization of all aspects of the cell, including the active materials, binders, separator, electrolyte and additives. Wildcat is using this high throughput system to develop new electrode and electrolyte materials for a variety of battery types (primary, secondary, aqueous, non-aqueous). In this talk, I will discuss our latest discovery, a copper fluoride-based conversion electrode with excellent rate capability (95% capacity at 1C, 20 µm electrode), energy density (3,000 Wh/L), voltage hysteresis (0.3 V), and stable cycling.3:30 Networking Refreshment Break, Exhibit/Poster Viewing
4:00 High Performance Lithium Cathode Nanopowders Prepared by a Novel MethodologyTeresita C. Frianeza-Kullberg, PhD, Co-CEO, CTO, Perfect Lithium Corp., Canada
A novel universal methodology suitable for large scale industrial production of nanopowders was invented by Perfect Lithium Corp. While the methodology can be applied to produce nanopowders in other applications such as nano-medicine, structural ceramics and others, the initial focus was the development of a scalable production process for making lithium cathode nanopowders. As an example, high energy layered lithium-rich lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide nanopowders were produced by this proprietary synthetic process. Production costs are reduced significantly because of the elimination of numerous process steps such as, for example, filtration, washing, milling and classifying, as well as repeated calcinations used in traditional preparation routes. Contaminations, metallic or ceramic, are eliminated. Environmentally, the Perfect Lithium methodology is benign since there is no need for treatment of neither wastewaters nor exhaust from firing. Furthermore, the results from battery cycling tests showed increased performance over commercially available lithium materials. The nanostructures formed early in the preparative step are retained over 1000 cycles at a high C-rate which indicate structural stability of the cathode nanopowder. Therefore, these nanopowders produced by the Perfect Lithium methodology have a value-added advantage in cycle life, charge and cost over commercial materials. Physical characterization results such as surface area, X-ray powder diffraction, porosity, scanning electron microscopy, and tap density will be presented. Battery cycling tests will be given for more than 1000 cycles at high C rate. Five patents have been filed on the process, application, products, and apparatus; additional patents are underway. Achievement of 50% reduction in $/kWh is realizable from nanopowders produced by this methodology derived from process cost reductions plus the value-added performance.
4:30 Development and Optimization of a Process for Producing the Battery Grade LiOH: Optimization of Water and Energy ConsumptionWilson Alavia, PhD, Researcher Center for Advanced Research in Lithium and Industrial Minerals-Celimin, Universidad de Antofagasta, Chile
To satisfy the current and future energy demand in Chile, the government is investing in ERNC and energy storage technologies, and specifically in lithium battery technologies. The components of our lithium batteries are fabricated from LiOH, which is produced from Li2
. In this presentation we will discuss development and optimization of a process for fabrication of LiOH battery grade from Li2
using the metallurgic process simulator Metsim. We have determined the optimal conditions to produce the battery grade LiOH and to reduce water and energy consumption.
*In collaboration with: A.Gonzales, S.Ushak, M.Grageda
5:00 String LifecycleAnalysis using Advanced Physical Models
Kevin L. Gering, PhD, Technical Program Manager, Applied Battery Research, Idaho National Laboratory
The dynamics of electrochemical strings remains a challenging area for battery pack design, especially when disparate cells and aging processes cause string members to drift over time. This work applies physics-based models to determine the effects of aging and cell-to-cell variances on string performance. From this we can determine the maximum allowable manufacturing variation between cells to achieve particular lifecycle goals of a string.
5:30 Coupling Lithium Ion Battery Thermo-Electrochemical Models with Orbital-Thermal Analysis Software for Space Applications William Walker, Researcher, NASA Johnson Space Center
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are replacing some of the Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries on the International Space Station. Knowing that LIB efficiency and survivability are highly influenced by the effects of temperature, this study focused on coupling orbital-thermal analysis software, Thermal Desktop (TD) v5.5, with LIB thermo-electrochemical models representing the local heat generated during charge/discharge cycles. Before attempting complex orbital analyses, a simple sink temperature model needed development to determine the compatibility of the two techniques. LIB energy balance equations solved for local heating (Bernardi’s equation) were used as the internal volumetric heat generation rate for native geometries in TD. The sink temperature, various environmental parameters, and thermophysical properties were based on those used in a previous study for the end of 1, 2, & 3 Coulomb (C) discharge cycles of a 185 Amp-Hour (Ah) capacity LIB. The TD model successfully replicated the temperature vs. depth of discharge (DoD) profiles and temperature ranges for all discharge and convection variations with minimal deviation. In this study, we successfully developed the capability of programming the logic of the variables and their relationship to DoD into TD. This coupled version of orbital thermal analysis software and thermo-electrochemical models provides a new generation of techniques for analyzing thermal performance of batteries in orbital-space environments.6:00 End of Day One
Wednesday, November 13, 2013 8:00 Exhibit/Poster Viewing, Coffee and Pastries
9:00 Outlook for Li-Ion Batteries in TransportationRalph Brodd, PhD, President, Broddarp of Nevada
The talk will summarize the recent NRC publication "Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels." The time line for introduction and the main factors controlling the transitions electrified transportation will be discussed. The study included a comparison of fuel cell, battery powered and hybrid vehicles as well as alternative fuels, such as ethanol, etc.
9:30 Intelligent Battery Design ToolboxBor Yann Liaw, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa
We have recently developed a mechanistic model as a battery design toolbox that can emulate “what if” scenarios to predict battery performance and life under various duty cycle requirements. Based on half-cell data, we can compose metrics for cell performance by matching electrode loading and loading ratio to construct different configurations for performance and life prediction. This unique capability will allow the user through simple design panel to estimate various “what if” criteria to design the cell with the performance and life in mind. The presentation will explain the approach and utility offered by this model and toolbox.
10:00 Charging Li-Ion Batteries with Wireless PowerWilliam von Novak, Principal Engineer, QUALCOMM
Wireless charging for portable devices is becoming more popular, with several competing technologies currently on the market. Each has its drawbacks and benefits, and each presents different challenges for charging of lithium ion batteries. Integration of the battery with common PMIC's (power management IC's) and portable device chipsets presents design challenges to the power system designer, including issues during dead battery startup and charge termination. This talk will provide an overview of the various types of wireless charging, along with their relative benefits and drawbacks, and will present some specific test results for charging on a loosely coupled system. It will also present some general guidelines for designing wireless power systems to be compatible with lithium ion battery systems.
10:30 Networking Refreshment Break, Exhibit/Poster Viewing
11:00 Soluble Anode for Lithium Battery ApplicationsRachid Yazami, PhD, Professor, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Lithium solvated electron solutions (Li-SES) are used as the soluble anode material in lithium batteries. Cells use a lithium ion conducting ceramic membrane (Ohara’, Japan) as the separating electrolyte. Physical and electrochemical characterizations were carried out on Li-metal/ceramic/Li-SES half cells, including OCV and entropy measurements. Full cells with different soluble cathodes, including air cathode were set up and discharged. OCVs close to 4V were achieved, showing the proof of concept of lithium based redox flow and fellable batteries.
11:30 Microfiber/Nanofiber Battery Separators Brian Morin, President and COO, and Justin Pardi, Dreamweaver International
Current stretched porous film battery separators for lithium ion batteries are thin, strong, and provide a good barrier between electrodes, at the cost of having very high internal resistance and low ionic flow. In this work, linear nanofibers and microfibers are combined in wet laid nonwoven processes to give separators that are strong and thin, but have higher porosity (60%) and much higher ionic flow. Batteries made with these separators are able to give similar performance at much higher electrode coat weights, reducing the surface area of both current collectors and separator and also the volume of electrolyte needed. Total mass reduction can be as high as 20% (1.3 kg/kWh), with raw material cost savings of over 25% ($55/kWh). Volume savings are 0.5 liters/kWh. Batteries made with similar construction show much higher charge and discharge rate capability. Temperature stability is also improved, from a current stability temperature of about 110˚C up to 175˚C. Applications include all power source applications that require high energy density, high power, high temperature stability, including cell phones, laptop and tablet computers, power tools, and electric and hybrid vehicles.
12:00 Lithium-Ion Battery Formation Process Development through Novel Thermal MeasurementJeff Xu, PhD, Principal Scientist, Powertrain Controls, Engine & Vehicle R&D Department Southwest Research Institute
An important step often overlooked or rarely investigated in lithium-ion battery manufacturing is the formation process. The formation process is the first full charging cycle of a lithium ion battery, which activates the cells before the lithium-ion cells can be used. The presentation will focus using novel thermal measurement tool to monitor heat profile during the first charging/discharging cycle of new cells. The novel formation protocol can thus be developed to determine the impact of the Lithium-ion battery formation process on battery performance such as capacity, cycle life, and safety.12:30 Concluding Remarks, End of Conference
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